Networking engineering pdf

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As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Electronics work on DC and with a voltage range of -48v DC to 48v DC. Electric devices use line voltage (120v AC, 240v AC, etc…). It states that, while taking the samples of a continuous signal, it has to be taken care that the sampling rate is equal to or greater than twice the cut off frequency and the minimum sampling rate is known as the Nyquist rate. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking (time division), speak at different pitches (frequency division), or speak in different directions (spatial division). People speaking the same language can understand each other, but not other people.

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In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels. The condition of unity loop gain -Aβ = 1 is called the Barkhausencriterion. Positive feedback reinforces a given tendency of a system and can lead a system away from equilibrium states, possibly causing quite unexpected results. Example for negative feedback and positive feedback. SCRs are connected in series to enchance (a) their overall dv/dt rating (b) their voltage ratings (c) their current handling capabilities (d) none of these 6.

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The study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles. (or)communication says as transferring of message from one place to another place called communication. You will find that the one language you know will be heard by you and the others will be treated like noise. Feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivityin between that of a conductor and that of an insulator(An Insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits. Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation. In a semiconductor diode, P-side is grounded and N-side is applied a potential of -5V through a resistance of 100 ohms. Communication means transferring a signal from the transmitter which passes through a medium then the output is obtained at the receiver. Digital signals are immune to noise, quality of transmission and reception is good, components used in digital communication can be produced with high precision and power consumption is also very less when compared with analog signals. Examples: are incandescent lights, heaters, fridge, stove, etc… Many codes occupy the same channel, but only users associated with a particular code can understand each other. The basic difference lies in the Multiplexing method used in the aerial communication i.e. CDMA uses Code Division Multiple Access as the name itself indicates, for example you are in a hall occupied with number of people speaking different language. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property. The transistor is the fundamental building block of computers, and all other modernelectronic devices. An operational amplifier, often called an op-amp , is a DC-coupledhigh-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs[1] and, usually, a single output. The frequency at which the response is -3d B with respect to the maximum response. The impedance curve of an R-L-C network cuts the frequency axis only when the frequency is such that (a) XL=XC (b) XL=XC=0 (c) R=0 and XL=XC (d) none of these 2.

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This condition implies that | Aβ|= 1and that the phase of – Aβ is zero. Example for –ve feedback is —Amplifiers And for ve feedback is – Oscillators 32. An oscillator is a circuit that creates a waveform output from a direct current input. An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. the condition that decides the oscillator’s out put frequency is : (a) loop gain should at least be unity (b) loop phase-shift should be zero or integral multiple of 2p radians (c) loop gain should be precisely unity (d) loop phase-shift should be precisely zero radian. most popular oscillator configuration for audio applications is : (a) Hartley oscillator (b) colpitt’s oscillator (c) wein-bridge oscillator (d) R-C phase shift oscillator. pick the odd-one out : (a) Hartley oscillator (b) collpitt oscillator (c) clap oscillator (d) wein bridge oscillator 9output voltage at no load in an unregulated power supply is the same as its output voltage at rated load current.

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